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A MANUAL FLORA

OF

■x?(

MADEIRA

AND

THE ADJACENT ISLANDS

OF

PORTO SANTO AND THE DESERTAS.

t\

RY

RICHARD THOMAS LOWE, M.A.

VOL. I.

PTCHLAMYDEiE.

Domim <'sI terra, et. plenitudo ejus. Psal. xxiv. 1.

LONDON :

JOHN VAN VOORST, 1 EATHRNOSTER ROW.

Mm'OOLXVI II,

' M5 *-6>f

Kpavai Kal fioravcu, yXvKepov (pvrdv

Tlavrq. tap, tt avrq. 8e vopoi . .

Theocr. Idyll. 8. 37, 41.

Hie ver assiduum, atque alienis raensibus Eestas ;

Bis gravidae pecudes, bis pomis utilis arbos.

At rabidaE tigres absunt, et saeva leonum Semina : nec miseros fallunt aconita legentes :

Nec rapit immensos orbes per humum neque tanto Squameus in spiram tractu se coliigit anguis.

Yirg. Georg, ii. 149-154.

*

TO

T. VERNON WOLLASTON, Esq., M.A., F.L.S.,

AUTHOR OF IXSECTA MADERENSIA,’ ‘CANARIAN COLEOPTERA,’ COLEOPTERA ATLANTIDUM,’ COLEOPTERA HESPERIDUM,’ ‘ON THE VARIATION OF SPECIES,’ ETC. ETC.,

OF WHOSE COMPANIONSHIP AND FRIENDSHIP SO MANY OF THE FOLLOWING- PAGES CONTAIN SOME PLEASANT REMINISCENCE,

THIS VOLUME

IS AFFECTIONATELY OFFERED AND INSCRIBED

BY

THE AUTHOR.

Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2015

https://archive.org/details/manualfloraofmadOOIowe

NOTICE.

Impeded by graver avocations, and in prospect of being obliged shortly to suspend altogether further progress by the necessity of leaving England for the benefit of health, I have decided on publishing at once the following portion of the Flora of Madeira ; -which I offer rather for the local use of in- valids, or other persons resorting to the island for a temporary residence, and who may find in these pursuits interest and re- creation for themselves or kindly employment in behalf of friends at home, than with the hope of imparting to European botanists much new or valuable matter. Still the following pages will supply, it may be hoped, one desideratum : namely, a more complete and correct catalogue of the living plants, actually or heretofore existing in Madeira and the adjacent islands, than has yet been provided. For, although several more or less accurate or full lists have appeared in print, whilst lately one in manuscript, formed by my regretted friend, Dr. Charles Lemann, partly indeed from his own researches, but completed with reference to a great part of the Madeiran and the whole of the Porto-Santan and Dezertan species from my own catalogue lent him for his private use, has been commu- nicated since his death to several botanists, still there is want- ing, in a form accessible to every one, any such authentic and exact register of the plants really growing in Madeira as I may not unreasonably hope to furnish : my present list being the careful fruit of a twenty-six years’ constant residence in the island, and of a subsequent six months’ visit in 1855, improved by diligent attention to the previous or contemporary labours of others in the same field, and above all by the free use of the important authentic materials deposited in the Banksian and Ilookerian Herbaria, accorded by the liberality and friendship of their respective guardians or owner. To Sir W. J. Hooker,

a

11

NOTICE.

Mr. Robert Brown, and Mr. J. J. Bennett, are indeed owing my most cordial thanks.

On my return to England it is my purpose, if life be spared, not only to complete the present little publication, but to follow it up, as health and leisure may permit, with a series of similar Manuals on the Ferns and other Cryptogamic plants, the Birds and Fishes, Shells or Mollusks, marine and ter- restrial, of the island : such as, in conjunction with the ela- borate and admirable works of Mr. Wollaston on the Insects, may furnish together a tolerably complete Natural History of the Madeiran group.

In the mean time, no further inconvenience than delay will accrue to the purchasers of the present instalment, in itself complete, of the Phaenogamic Flora, by its separate publication. When its sequel is carried through the press, care will be taken to make the paging continuous with that of the part now published, so that the whole may be ultimately bound up in one volume, for which a fresh title-page, with other intro- ductory or prefatory matter, tables, indices, &c., will be supplied.

One word then only for the present to collectors in Madeira. It is a much better plan to take out a sufficient stock of drying- paper for the day’s walk or excursion, strapped or tied up be- tween two common boards of suitable size, placing the plants at once when gathered between the sheets, than to collect them in a herborizing-box, not laying them out till the conclusion of the expedition in the evening. A great amount of trouble is thus saved : and, indeed, the heat of the sun in Madeira renders the herborizing-box almost useless, its contents gene- rally withering long before they can be earned home. The roughest wooden boards are better than the best paste-boards, pressing more equably, and affording more protection from a casual shower. At night, a stone of suitable weight placed on the bundle, forms the best possible plant-press.

Lea Rectory, July 27th, 1857.

m

EXPLANATIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS.

Regions or Zones of Vegetation in Madeira.

1. Cactus and Banana. Tropical, cultivated, reaching from

the sea to a height of 700 feet. Characterized by the following plants :

Cultivated. Banana, Palm, Sugar Cane, Arrowroot, Rose-apple, Custard-apple, Guava, Fig, Cypress, Bamboo, Oleander, Judas- tree, Carob-tree, Coral-trees ( Erytlirina), Brugmansia, Big- nonia, Hibiscus, Poinsettia, Euphorbia, Duranta, Csesalpinia, Alpinia, Hedychium, Hoya, Stephanotis, Cereus ( triangularis L ., speciosissimus Desf., phyllanthoides DC., &c.), Passifiora ( quadrangularis L., edulis Ker, Lower Heer, &c.).

Naturalized. Prickly Pear ( Opuntio Tuna Mill.), Pelargonium inquinans Ait., Cassia bicapsularis L., Lantana Camara L., Iiicinus communis L., Aloe arborescens L., Aloe vulgaris Lam., Ageratum conyzoides L., Maurandia semperjlorens Jacq., Me- sembrianthemum cordifolium L., Solarium sodomceum L., Sol. auriculatum Ait., Sida carpinifolia L., Commelyna agraria Kth., Panicum repens L., Paspalum vaginatum L., Eleusine indica Gaertn., &c.

Indigenous. Dragon-tree, Teuerium heterophyllum Herit., Jas- minum odoratissimum L., Chamcemeles coriacea Lindl., Sidei'- oxylon Mcrmidana Lowe, Celastrus ( Catha Forsk.) cassinoides Herit., Gomphocarpus frutieosus R. Br., Helichrysum obconi- cum DC., Euphorbia piscatoria Ait., Juniperus phoenicea L., Ephedra alata Decaisne, Pedrosia glauca Ait., Erankenia Icevis L., Lavandula pinnata L., Matthiola maderensis Lowe, Sonchus ustulatus Lowe, Musschia aurea L. til., Echium nervosum Ait., Hyoscyamus canariensis Ker, Sempervivum glutinosum Ait., Pennisetum cenchroides Rich., Andropogon liirtus L., Pipta- therum multijlorum Beauv., Clieilanthes suaveolens Sw., Notho- cldcena Marantce L., N. vellea Sw., Nephrodium molle R. Br., &c.

2. Vine and Chestnut *. Temperate, cultivated, from 500 to

2500 feet. The chief characteristic plants are

* The Chestnut forms from 1500 to 2500 feet a sort of upper belt

or border to this zone, below whose upper limit snow never lies

longer than a few hours.

IV

EXPLANATIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS.

Cultivated and naturalized. The Vine, Cereals, Chestnut, Oak, Cork-tree, Orange, Lemon, Pomegranate, Fig, Mulberry, Peach, Almond, Apricot, Plum, Cherry, Apple, Pear, Quince, Japan Medlar, Walnut, American Aloe, Fuchsias, Heliotrope, Pe- largoniums, Australian Acacias and Eucalypti, Stone Pine and Pinaster, Roses, Honeysuckle, Mesembrianthemum edule L., Passiflora ccerulea L., Oxalis purpurea Jacq., Solanum pseudo- capsicum L., Hydrangea hortensis Sm., Rhus Coriaria L., Or- nithogalum arabicum L., Lilium candidum L., Arum italicum L. and A. JDracunculus L., Richardia cethiopica L., Amaryllis Bella Donna L., Common Furze, Broom and Bramble, &c.

Indig. Dragon-tree, Myrtle, Dog-rose (R. canina L.), Madeira Holly (Hex Perado Ait.), Rhamnus glandulosa Ait., Myrica Faya Ait., Euphorbia meUifera Ait., Genista virgata Ait., A denocarpus parvifolius DC., Hypericum grandifolium Chois., H. glandulosum Ait., Tcucrium betonicum Herit., Globidaria salicina Lam., Phyllis Nobla L., Lavandula viridis Ait., Viola odorata L., Fragaria vesca L., Agrimonia Eupatorium L., Lobelia urens L., Cynoglossum pictum Ait., Salvia clandestine i L., Aristolochia longa L., Brachypodinm pinnatum Iluds., Melica ciliata L., Dantlionia decumbens L., Arrhenatherum avenaceum Beauv., Agrostis canina L., Ceteracli officinarum WiUd., &c.

3. Laurel and Heath. Mountains ; uncultivated, from 2500

to 5500 feet. The principal plants are

Naturalized. Common Broom and Mountain Ash (Pyrus Au- cuparia L.); the latter perhaps indig.

Indig. Laurels (L. indica L., fastens Ait., canariensis Willd.), Heaths (Erica arborea L., scoparia L.), Whortleberry ( Vac- cinium maderense Link), Clethra arborea Ait., Heberdenia excelsa Ait., Picconia excelsa Ait., Echium candicans L.fil., Sonchus squarrosus I)C., S. pinnatus Ait., Chrysanthemum pinnatijidum L. til., Cheiranthus mutabilis Herit., Senecio ma- derensis DC., Isoplexis sccptrum L. til., Bystropogon punctatus Herit., piperitus Lowe, maderensis Webb, Tmcrium abutiloides Herit., Mentha Pulcgium L., Origanum virens Hoffin., Phyllis Nobla L., Fragaria vesca L., Viola sylvestris Lam., Saxifraga maderensis Don, Teesdalia nudicaulis R. Br., Sibthorpia pere- grina L., Cedronclla triphylla Moench, &c.

4. Highest Peaks. Rocky crags and summits of the higher

mountains, uncultivated, from 5500 to about 0000 feet. The only peculiar plants are

Indig. Arenaria scrpyllifolia L., Cerastium tetrandrum Curt., Erica cincrca L., Viola paradoxa Lowe, Armeria maderensis Lowe, Avcna marginata Lowe.

EXPLANATIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS.

V

Regions or Zones of Vegetation in Porto Santo.

1. Maritima or Littoral. From the sea to a height of 100 feet ;

cultivated. The characteristic plants are

Cult, and naturalized. Vine, Fig, Mulberry, Tamarisk, Elreag- nus angustifolia L., Lgcium europceum L., Arundo Donax L., Mesem brianthem u m edule L ., &c.

Indig. Convolndus Soldanella L., Scdsola Kali L., Cakile mari- tima Scop., Pedrosia Porto-sanctana Lowe, Atriplex parvifolia Lowe, Succda fruticosa L., Clienolea tomentosa Lowe, Glaucium corniculatum L. , Polygonum maritimum L. , Euphorbia piscatoria Ait., E. Peplis L., E. Paralias L., Spergularia rubra L., &c.

2. Collina or Ilill-side zone. From 100 to 1200 feet; cul-

tivated.

Cult. Cereals (chiefly Barley and Rye), Pulse (Ervum Lens L., Lathyrus Cicera L., L. articulatus L.), White Poplar, Dragon- tree, Prickly Pear ( Opuntia Tuna Mill.), Tamarisk, &c.

Indig. and naturalized. Ranunculus muricatus L., Erodium chium L., Frankenia puloerulenta L., F. Icevis L., Astragalus Solandri Lowe, Senecio incrassatus Lowe, Statice ovalifolia Poir., Jmicus cicutus L., Pedrosia macrantha Lowe, Plantago Victorialis Poir., Cichorium IntybusL.fi. DC.; and amongst corn, Chrysanthemum coronarium L., Silene injlata Sm., S. nocturna L. (3. DC., S. ignobilis Lowe, Papaver Rhceas L., Centaurea melitensis L., Emex spinosus L., Melilotus parvijlora Desf., M. sulcata Desf., Ononis mitissima L., Trifolii sp., &c.

3. Montana or Mountain-pastures. From 1000 or 1200 to

1500 feet ; partially cultivated, but chiefly grassy.

Indig. or naturalized. Ononis micrantha Lowe, O. dentata Lowe, Medicago sp., Trifolium sp., Cynara horrida Ait., Verbascum virgatum L., Mentha Pulegium L., Origanum virens Hoffm., Prasium medium (3. Lowe, Ajuga Ira L., Carex divulsa Good., Festuca bromoides L., Pteris aquilina L., &c.

4. Excelsa or Rocky mountain-peaks. From 1200 or 1500 to

nearly 1700 feet; bare uncultivated highest crags.

Indig. Cheiranthus arbuscida Lowe, Umbilicus pendulinus DC., Sempervivum stellatum Sm., Saxifraga maderensis Don, Galium geminiforum Lowe, G. anglicum Huds., Helichrysum melan- ophthalmum Lowe, Senecio maderensis DC., Pedrosia macran- tha Lowe, P. argentea Lowe, Andryala robusta Lowe, Tolpis fruticosa Schr. y, 8. Lowe, Erica scoparia L., Wahlenbergia lobelioides L. fil., Sibthorpia peregrina L., Micromeria varia Ben tli., Sideritis Massoniana Benth., Plantago leiopetala Lowe, Rumex acidcatus L., Habenaria cordata Link, Dactylis glome- rata L., Eavallia canariensis Sw., Polypodium vulgar e L., Lycopodium denticulatum L., &c.

a 5

EXPLANATIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS.

vi

Regions or Zones of Vegetation in the Dezertas.

N.D. North or Little Flat Dezerta.

Maritime wholly. Sea-cliffs, and top of the Island at or a little above 300 feet. The principal plants are

Indig. Artemisia argentea Herit., Teucrium heterophyUum Herit., Olea europcea L. a, subv. baxifolia Lowe, Jasminum odoratis- simum L.. Silene injlata Sm. y, maritima With., Matthiola maderensis Lowe, Crithmum maritimum L., Andryala robusta Lowe, Tolpis fruticosa Schr. a, Sonchus ustulatus Lowe, Calen- dula maderensis Lowe, Barkhausia divaricata /3. Lowe, Hel- minthia echioides Gaertn., Mesembrianthemum crystallinum L., M. nodi forum L., Pedrosia glauca Ait., P. argentea Lowe, Viet a capreolata Lowe, Ononis dent ata Lowe, Scrophularia argutaAAt., Plantago Coronopus L., Beta patula Ait., Suceda fruticosa L., Urtica urens L., Asphodelus Jistulosus L., Hordeum murinum L., Brachypodium distachyon L., Arthrochortus loliaceus Lowe, &c.

M.D. or G.D. Middle or Great Dezerta.

1. Maritime. Sea-cliffs, and up to a height of 800 or 1000 ft.

Indig. Monizia edulis Lowe, Crithmum maritimum L., Silene injlata Sm. y, maritima With., Matthiola maderensis Lowe, Crambe fruticosa Herit. j3, Phyllis Nobla L., Andryala robusta Lowe, Sonchus ustulatus Lowe, Tolpis fruticosa Schr. a, Calen- dula maderensis Lowe, Helichrysum melanophthalmum Lowe, Pedrosia glauca Ait., Plantago Coronopus L., P. arborescens Loir., Sideritis Massoniana Benth. /3, Suceda fruticosa L., &c.

: 2 . Mountain. Central Valley and Mountains, from 800 or 1000 to 1000 ft.

Cult, or naturalized. A little Wheat and Rye, a few Firs (Pinus Pinaster L.), a Fig-tree or two, a few Cabbages, a Tobacco plant or two, Common Broom, Furze ( Ulex europccus L.),Milk or Holy Thistle ( Silybum Mariunum ( laertn.), Arundo I)onax L., Reseda Luteola L., Papaver somniferum L., &c.

Indig. Rapistnan rugosum (L.) Bergm. o. and /3, Ruta brac- teosa I)C., Tri folium august i folium L., T. lupulinum L., T. ligusticum Bulb., Lotus hispulus Desf., Ononis mitissima L., Mesembrianthemum nodijlorum L., Aster i sens aquations L., Helminthia echioides Gaertn., (ralaotites tomentosa Mcench., Phagnulon sa.rafilis L., Behi am plantagineum L., Murrubium vulgare L., Micromeria raria Benth., Rumex pulcher L., R. aeuleutus L., Urtica urens I i., U. membranaeea Poir., Carex dimisa Good., llolcrn lan at us L., Lagurus oratus L., Phalans cccrulescens Desf., P. paradoxa L. fil., Arena hirtufa Lag., A. fatun L., Briza maxima L., Festuca bromoides L., Bromus madritensis L ., Pterin aquilina L., &c.

EXPLANATIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS.

Vll

S.B. South Bezerta or Bugio.

1. Maritime:. Sea-banks and cliffs up to a height of 1000 or

1200 ft.

Indig. Papaver somniferum L., Silene inflata Sm. y, maritima With., Crambe fruticosa Her. /3, Pedrosia glauca Ait., Melilo- tus parvijiora Besf., Crithmum maritimum L., Phyllis Nobla L., Mesembrianthemum nodiforum L., 31. crystallinum L., Senecio incrassatus Lowe, Calendula maderensis Lowe, Tolpis fruticosa Schr. a, Andryala robusta Lowe, Echium nervosum Ait., Hyoscyamus canariensis Ker, 3Iicromeria varia Benth., Plantago leiopetala Lowe, Rumex aculeatus L., Dactylis glome- rata L., Arena hirtula Lag., Polypogon monspeliensis Besf., Gastridium australe Beauv., Asplenium marinum L., &c.

2. Mountain. Top of the Island, at or above 1200 or 1300 ft.

Indig. Silene gallica L., Spergidaria fallax Lowe, Arenaria ser- pyllifolia L. /3, Cerastium glomeratum Thuill., Erodium chium L., Ononis dentata Lowe /3, Pedrosia argentea Lowe, Aizoon canariense L ., Galium murale L., Phagnalon saxatile L., Chry- santhemum hcematomma Lowe, Carlovizia salicifolia Less, (3, Centaur ea melitensis L., Silybum Marianum Gaertn., Helmin- tliia echioides Gaertn., Rarkhausia divaricata (3. Lowe, Ilelio- tr opium europceum L., Scrophularia arguta Ait., Sideritis 31as- soniana Benth. j3, Anagallis arvensis L. /3, Urtica urens L., Hordeum murinum L., Festuca bromoides L., Lagurus ovatus L., *fec.

Localities or Habitats.

Mad Madeira.

PS Porto Santo.

NB North or Flat Bezerta; Ilheo Chad A

MB. or GB . . Middle or Great Bezerta; a Dezerta .”

SB' South Bezerta; Bugio.”

reg Begion or Zone in each of these.

When any of these habitats are specified, the plant must be understood not to have been discovered in the rest.

When none are mentioned, the plant has been observed in all.

Parity or Abundance.

nrr. Extremely rare. In one or two spots only. E.G. Ranun- culus acris L., Viola paradoxa Lowe, Visnea Mocanera L. til., Pittosporum coriaceumXit., Goodyera macrophylla Lowe, Euzula Seuberti Lowe, Festuca jubata Lowe, Lycopodium complanatum L., &c.

fw c I «

Vlll

EXPLANATION'S AND ABBREVIATIONS.

n\ Very rare. In several spots, but only sparingly, a few detached plants here and there. E.G. Yew, Cedar of the island (Juniperus Oxycedrus L.) and J.phcenicea L., Dragon- tree, Pieconia excelsa Ait., Rhamnus glandulosa Ait., Vida capreolata Lowe, Convolvulus Massoni Dietr., AnfhyUis Le- manniana Lowe, Musschia WoUastoni Lowe, Melanoseli- num decipiens Iloffm., Nycterium triphyllum Lowe, Balan- tium cidcita Sw., &c.

r. Rare. In a few spots only, and in those tolerably abundant ; but quite local. E.G. Daisy, Dandelion, Masscliia aurea Ait., Erica cinerea L., Arena marginata Lowe, Polypodium drepanum Sw., Nothochlcena vellea Ait., &c.

Rather rare. In several spots, or a whole district, and in such abundantly ; but still local. E.G. Lauras Barbusana Lowe, Ranunculus creticus L. /3, Frankenia laris L., Hype- ricum linarifolium Vahl, Sambucus maderensis Lowe, Sedum farinosum Lowe, Thymus angustifolius Pers., Salvia clan - destina L., Nephrodium Oreopteris Ehrh., &c.

Rather common. In many places, but confined to one Region only, and not very abundant. E.G. Heberdenia exceka Ait. (Aderao), Ranunculus creticus L. a, R. muricatus L., Chei- ranthus mutubilis Her., Sideroxylon Mermulana Lowe, Chei- lanthes suaveolens Sw., &:c.

c. Common. General everywhere in two or more Regions, but nowhere very abundant. E.G. Nigella damascena L., Del- phinium Consolida L., Papaver somniferum L., Capsella Bursa Pastoris L., Trifolium repens L., Cichorium Intybus L. (3, Gnaphalium luteo-album L., Scandix Pecten Veneris L., &c.

cc. Very common. General and abundant, but mostly con- fined to one Region only. E.G. Matthiola maderensis Lowe, Opuntia Tuna Mill. (Prickly Pear), Helichrysum obconicum DC., Andryala robusta Lowe, To! pis macrorhiza Lowe, Vac- cinia m maderense Link, Erica arborea L., Festuca Don ax Lowe, Deschampsia urgent ea Lowe, JVoodtcardia radicans Sw., &c.

rcc. Extremely common. General and abundant everywhere, and in two or more Regions. E.G. Ranunculus ripens L., Fumaria muralis Sond., Isatis preecox Kit., Hypericum per- foratum L., Common llroom, nramble, Psora lea bit uminosa L., Vida compicua Lowe, Ammi majus L., Calendula ar- vensis L., Eehium plantagineum L., Solan uni nigrum L., Antirrhinum Orontium L., Sibfhorpia peregrina L., Origa- num vixens Link, Taurus canadensis \\ illd., L. ftvtens Ait., L. indica L., Burner maderensis Lowe, Carer dirulsa Good., Loliunx perenne L., Festuca bromoides L., Briza maxima L.,

EXPLANATIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS.

IX

Poa annua L., Holcus lanatus L., Lycopodium denticulatum L., Polypodium vidgare L., Pteris aquilina L., Davallia cana- riensis L., &c.

Nature and Duration.

Herb Herbaceous.

Shr Shrub.

Suflr Do. under a foot high.

Tr Tree.

Ann Annual.

Bien Biennial.

Per Perennial.

Seasons.

Spr Spring, i. e. Nov. Dec. Jan. Febr. Mar. Apr. May.

Sum. . . Summer, i. e. June, July, Aug.

Aut. . . Autumn, i. e. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

Terms of Description.

ach achsenia.

anth anthers.

br bracts.

caps capsule.

carp carpels.

cor corolla.

fil filaments.

fl flower.

fr fruit.

ft feet.

in inches.

inv involucre.

L. 1 leaves.

lfts leaflets.

1. c loco citato ;

i. e. in the place last quoted.

ov

ovul. . . ,

pan. . .

ped. . . ,

pedic. . .

pet. . . ,

P1

rac

recept. ,

sds

segrn. . .

sep. . . ,

sepals.

SP

spec. . .

st

stam. . .

stip. . .

stipules.

var. . . .

\ variety.

Pubescence.

1. Hairs soft .

pubescent . . downy with short fine hairs, puberulous . . downy in lowest degree.

pilose haiiy, with long distinct hairs.

villous hairy, with copious long close-set hairs.

lanuginous . . woolly, tomentose . . cottony.

X

EXPLANATIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS.

floccose .... woolly or cottony, separating into loose locks, velutinous . . velvety, sericeous .... silky.

furry clothed with short crisped or irregularly crumpled

pubescence.

2. Hairs hard or stiff.

hispid rough, with short coarse hairs.

hispidulous . . rough in lowest degree.

liirtose sprinkled with long distinct hairs.

hirsute shaggy, with copious long close-set hairs.

strigose .... harsh, with rather short distinct very hard stiff hairs, often springing from a bulb or tubercle. (Extreme of hispid.)

setose bristly, with copious long close-set very stiff

hairs. (Extreme of hirsute.)

Direction of Stems.

creeping .... lying flat along the ground, and rooting here and there.

prostrate .... lying flat along the ground, but not rooting, procumbent. . lying partly flat, the ends ascending : less of prostrate.

ascending . . a little prostrate at the base ; then, and for the greater part of their length, upright, decumbent . . rising obliquely from the base, but falling back upon the ground.

diffuse spreading loosely irregularly from the base, but

not falling back upon the ground : less of de- cumbent.

climbing .... trailing or laying hold in various ways, but not themselves twining.

twining .... twisting or winding spirally.

Colour of Flowers.

w

..... white.

or

. orange.

1

sc

. scarlet.

V

violet.

cr

. crimson.

1)

r

. red.

gr

y

yellow.

P

. pink.

Degree of Naturalization.

f. Quite naturalized or self-propagating, but probably intro- duced originally: e. g. Prickly Pear (Opuntia Tuna Mill.), Broom, Bramble, Bella Donna Lily, Star of Bethlehem ( Ornithoffulum arabicum L.), Oxalis corniculata L., Uidens

EXPLANATIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS.

XI

leucantha Willd., Gladiolus segetum Ker, Panicum repens L., &c.

•f-f. More or less naturalized or self-propagating and growing without culture, but certainly introduced originally: e.g. Cape Gooseberry ( Physalis eclulis Sims), Nicandra physa- lodes Gaertn., Ageratum conyzoides L., Eclipta prostrata L., Eupatorium adenophorum Spr., Passijlora ccerulea L., Cassia bicapsularis L., Pelargonium inquinans L., Lantana Camara L., Oxalis purpurea Jacq., Commelyna communis L., Colo- casia antiquorum Sch. (Inhame), Richardia cethiopica L., Arundo JJonax L., Maurandia, Aloe, Agave, Castor-Oil plant, Common Furze, Pomegranate, &c.

fff. Subnaturalized or perfectly acclimatized, but not self-pro- pagating, and growing not without some slight culture, or chiefly as a crop or common ornamental plant : e. g. Chest- nut, Oak, Plane, Acacia, Eobinia, Brugmansia, Fuchsia, Pelargonium, Heliotrope, Peach, Fig, Apricot, Quince, Midberry, Flax, Wheat, Rye, Barley, Orange, Lemon, Plum, Cherry, Vine, Guava, Rosemary, Buddlaea, Rose- apple, Lupines, French Beans, Gourds, Pumpkins, Onions, Cabbage, &c.

N.B. When no mark at all is prefixed, the plant is considered to be certainly or probably indigenous.

Books or Authors, etc. most frequently quoted.

L Linnaeus.

W Willdenow.

DC DeCandolle, Prodromus.

EB English Botany.

EBS English Botany Supplement.

RIB Reichenbach’s Icon. Botan. s. Plantae Criticae.

RFG Reichenbach’s Icon. Florae Germanicae et Helvet.

s. FI. Germ. Excurs.

BM Curtis’s Botanical Magazine.

BH Banksian Herbarium at the British Museum.

HII Hookerian Herbarium at Kew.

Sm. E. FI. . . Smith’s English Flora.

II. FI. Sc. . . Hooker’s Flora Scotica.

Brot Brotero’s Flora Lusitanica.

Desf. Desfontaines’ Flora Atlantica.

WB Webb and Berthelot’s Phytographia Canariensis.

Presl Presl’s Flora Sicula, Pragae 1820.

Koch Koch’s Synopsis FI. Germ. Ed. 2. Lips. 1843-45.

Bab Babington’s Manual of British Botany, Edit. 4.

1850.

Bucli Von Buch’s List of Madeira Plants in Abliand-

lungen der Konigl. Akademie der Wissen-

Xll

EXPLANATIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS.

sckaften zu Berlin, &c., fur das Jahr 1816 ; afterwards published in a Collection of Memoirs, 4to, Berlin, 1825.

Holl A List of Plants observed in the Island of Ma-

deira, with descriptions (by Reichenbach in the Phanerogamous Plants, and Kunze in the Cryp- togamous) of some new species. By Fr. IIoll, Dresden. Published in the Ratisbon Flora, Regensburg, 1830 ; and reprinted, with “Notes and Observations on the above list, &c., by R. T. Lowe,” in Hook. Journ. of Bot. (Bot. Misc. 2nd Ser.) vol. i. Lond. 1834.

Prim., Novit. Lowe’s Primitise, Camb. 1830 ; Novitiae, Camb. 1838 ; and Lond. 1851.

Altitudes of the principal mountains, stations or localities specified in the following pages (from Vidal’s Survey chiefly).

Madeira.

Feet

Pico Ruivo .... 6056 dos Arrieiros . . 5893

Grande .... 5391 Ruivo on the Paul

da Serra . . . 5210 Travellers’ house on do. 4608 Pico do Arrebentao . . 3844 Mr. Veitch’s house at

the Jardim da Serra . 2526

Mount Church . . . 1965

Cabo Girao .... 1934

Penha d’Aguia . . . 1915

Brazen Head .... 421

Encumeado de S. Vi- cente, about . . 4000 Levada in Rib. Frio and

Rib. da Metade, about 3000 Church at Camacha and atS. Antonio da Serra,

about 2300

Church in theCurral das

Freiras, about . . . 2000

Pallieiro, about . . . 2000

Hotel at Sla Anna, about 1 100 Levada de Sttt Luzin,

from 500 to 600 Quinta do Valle, about 350 Deanery, about . . . 300

Porto Santo.

Pico de Facho . . .

Feet

1663

do Castello . . .

1446

Branco . . . .

1389

d’Anna Ferreira .

911

Illieo de Baxo . . .

570

de Cima . . .

364

Dezertas.

Dez. Grande . . . .

1610

Bugio

1349

Ilheo Chao . . . .

336

Sail-rock, off N. end of

I. Chao

160

Lat. of Funciial

32° 38'

22" N

Long. . . . 16° 54'

56" W.

Lat. of Porto Santo-

33° 3'

30" N.

Long. . . . 16° 20' 14" W.

Mean annual temperature of Funchal, 65°-67° Falir.

A

MANUAL FLORA

OF

MADEIRA

AND THE ADJACENT ISLANDS.

I. VASCULAR PLANTS.

Leaf-bearing plants, composed of cellular tissue, woody fibre and spiral vessels. Epiderm with stomata. Seeds with a distinct germ (gemmule or plumule and radicle) and one or more seed-leaves (cotyledons).

Class I. EXOGENS or DICOTYLEDONS.

Flowering plants, with stems composed of bark, wood and pith {medulla) : the wood interrupted by medullary rays ( silver grain of carpenters) and growing by accretion of fresh concentric rings or layers outside. Leaves with generally branched reticulating veins. Flowers distinct symmetrical antheriferous. Cotyledons two opposite, or rarely several whorled, very rarely (in a few exceptionally leafless plants, e. g. Cuscuta L.) none.

B

o

1. RANUNCULACEAB.

Subclass I. THALAMIFLORiE.

Stam. free or distinct from the pet., and with the latter inserted separately from the sep. on the summit of the flower- stalk ( receptacle , thalamus or torus) below the ovary (i. e. hypogynous).

Order I. RANUNCULACEA3.

The Ranunculus Family.

Sep. 3-6, often 5, mostly deciduous. Pet. 5 or more, some- times peculiarly shaped, sometimes with a gland or scale inside at the base, rarely 0. Stam. indefinite in number, free, hypo- gynous : anthers adnate, bursting longitudinally mostly out- wards. Ov. 1-many, distinct, each with a style and 1-many ovules affixed to the inner suture. Fruit various, dry (achae- nidal or follicular), or (rarely) baccate. Carpels 1-many-seeded. Seeds erect or pendulous ; embryo minute in a hollow of the horny albumen. Herbaceous rarely shrubby with watery acrid often poisonous juices. Leaves mostly much divided, with dilated sheathing stalks, but no true stipules. Hairs when present simple.

Tribe I. RANUNCULUS.

The Ranunculus Tribe.

Aestivation imbricate. Pet. with a nectariferous pore at the base. Anthers bursting outwards ( extrorsal ). Ov. many di- stinct, each with one ovule. Fr. a collection of many dry 1 -seeded acliamia. Seed erect except in Myosurus.

1. Ranunculus. Sep. 5, rarely 3, deciduous. Pet. 5, rarely many ; nectariferous pore at the base of their claw either naked or covered bv a scale. Ach. numerous, collected into a globular or oblong head.

Tribe II. HELLEBORES.

The Hellebore Tribe.

/Estivation imbricate. Sep. 5, rarely more, petal-like. Pet. irregular or peculiar in form, or 0. Anthers extrorsal. Fr. consisting of one or several distinct or more or less combined many-seeded follicles, each bursting inwards.

2. Nigklla. Sep. 5 petal-like deciduous. Pet. 5-10 smaller than the sepals, 2-lipped, their claw with a nec- tariferous pore covered with a scale. Follicles 5-10 more or less connate or combined into a capsule, each beaked with the long horn-like persistent style.

RANUNCULUS.

3

f3. Aquilegia. Sep. 5 petal-like deciduous. Pet. 5, 2-lipped funnel-shaped produced downwards between the sepals into a long hollow horn-like spur. Follicles 5 distinct, each acuminate and tipped with the style.

4. Delphinium. Sep. 5 petal-like deciduous irregular or unequal, the uppermost being produced downwards into a long spur. Pet. 4, the 2 upper each with spurs enclosed within the sepal-spur, or all combined into a monopetalous single-spurred cor. Follicles 1, 3 or 5, distinct.

Tribe I. Ranunculeee.

1. Ranunculus L.

Crowfoot or Butter- cup.

* Leaves divided. FI. y. Nectary with a scale. Ach. com- pressed, lenticular, marginate, even , unarmed.

t Root fascicled or grumose.

1. R. grandifolius Lowe. Douradinha or Ouradinha.

Hairy pubescent sometimes villose, hairs soft and silky, all quite simple at the base, those of the stem close-pressed ; st. stout erect branched corymbose ; 1. light gr. unspotted shining some- what harsh or stiff, the lower stem and root-leaves roundish- reniform. or cordate, undivided and obtusely pinnatilobate, rarely pinnatipartite or more deeply cut and gashed, the edges always sharply and finely or copiously cut and toothed ; upper st. -leaves 3-5-pinnatipartite, the uppermost sessile simple lanceolate en- tire ; fl. in a close crowded corymb, large ; sep. spreading hori- zontally ; heads of fr. short obtuse globosely oval, sometimes inclining to oblong, rarely oblong; ach. quite smooth with a hooked beak. Herb. per. Mad. reg. 3 ; §. Ravines and thickets on wet rocks and banks. Apr.-July. Root large, often in a.

palmate with fleshy thick divisions, and in (3. tomentose. FI. bright y. large and handsome, 1-2-i- inches in diam. densely corymbose. Recept. slightly villose at the base.— Var. :

a. major ; st. robust 2-4 ft. high; root-1, very large from 5-12 in. broad, scarcely divided with obtuse broad shallow lobes ; corymb very large and ample many-flowered ; fl. very large ; fruit-spikes short and oval. It grandifolius Lowe Prim. (Ed. 1. 1830) 38 ! not Meyer; Walp. Repert. 1. 3G; Hook. J. ot Bot. 9. 70. R. creticus Prim. (Ed. 2. 1851) App. V. VI. ! not Linn. R. arcticus (misprint for creticus ) Buch Verz. 195. R. cortuscefolius (3. syl- vaticus WB. i. 8, 9 ? R. cortuscefolius (3. sylvaticus Seub. Fl. Az. 42. R. cortuscefolius Hook, in Bot. Mag. t. 4025 ! (hairs too

4

1. RANTTNCULACEiE.

spreading; descr. in part only) not Willd. R. megaphyllus Steud. Ledges and clefts of wet or shady rocks, especially near waterfalls, in ravines everywhere above 3000 ft., ■§. Rib. Frio, Rib. da Metade, de Seisal, de Janella, Serra d’Agoa, Boa Ventura, &c. A noble pi., gigantic in its genus, conspicuous on high rocks with its broad ample shining 1. and vast corymbs of fine golden y. fl. often as large as a crownpiece or dollar.

3- minor ; altogether smaller and usually more villose-hairy than a, with the lower or root-1, pinnatipartite or more deeply cut and divided than in a, and only 2-4 in. broad ; st. 1-2 ft. high ; corymb of fewer generally smaller fl., and fruit-spikes sometimes distinctly oblong. Hook. J. ofBot. 9. 72. R. creticus var. macrophyllus Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1432. Moist open grassy banks, and thickets of Vacdnium, L Paul da Serra, and close below the waterfall at the head of the Rib. de Luzia. A

starved or depauperated form of a, sometimes almost hoary- villose.

For a fuller accoimt of R. grandifolius and its nearest allies R. creticus L. and cortuscefolius Willd., with one or both of which it has been usually united, see a Paper in Hook. Joum. of Bot. ix. 65. The Cretan pi. is on the whole rather more nearly related to the Canarian than to the Madeiran or Azorian sp., ranking intermediately according to affinity between the two, instead of coming in the order of its geographical position.

Nothing like the true Canarian R. cortuscefolius Willd. (Deless. Ic. 1. t. 36, opt.) has occurred in Madeira to myself or to any other botanist of my acquaintance. But in the BII. the hab. Madeira, Fr. Masson is affixed to an undoubted specimen of the pi. with its. characteristic smaller thinner sparingly cre- nate black-specked 1. sprinkled with bulbous hairs, its smaller scattered not corymbosely crowded fl. on slender elongated stalks, and altogether more delicate habit. Masson however having collected in Teneriflfe immediately after Madeira, a mistake might easily arise from accidental transposition of his specimens or labels.

ft Root fibrous.

t+2. R. ACItIB L. Tall upright Crowfoot.

More or less hairy; st. erect, branched many-flowered ; 1. pnl- matelv 3-5-part ite, the segments trifid deeply and sharply cut and toothed ; upper st.-l. tripartite with linear segments ; pedic. round ; sep. pubescent spreading ; ach. oval smooth marginate with a very short slightly hooked beak; recept. smooth. Brot.

BANTJNCULTJS.

0

ii. 367; EB. t. 652; DC. 1. 36; Sm. E. FI. iii. 51; Presl 16; Koch 18 ; Bab. 10. Herb. per. Mad. reg. 2 ; rrr. Palheiro, chestnut woods by the road outside, and in fields inside, the Park, whence it has evidently straggled. Up the Caminho do Meio, Sr J. M. Moniz. Apr.- June. St. stout hollow branched 2-3 ft. high. El. bright y. Sep. erecto-patent, not reflexed. Beak about £ the length of ach.

3. It. BEPENS L.

Hairy pubescent ; st. mberect few-flowered with long creeping stolons ; root-1, temate and bitemate, leaflets trifid cut and toothed ; pedic. furrowed ; sep. pubescent spreading ; ach. oval smooth marginate finely punctate, with a rather long slightly hooked beak ; recept. hairy. Brot. ii. 366 ; DC. i. 38 ; EB. t. 516 ; Sm. E. FI. iii. 51, 52 ; Presl 17 ; Koch 19 ; Bab. 10. Herb, per. Mad. reg. 1, 2, 3 ; ccc. All the year. Moist grassy places everywhere. St. (primary) erect 6-12 in. high. Side-shoots widely spreading prostrate and rooting. L. dark gr. often spotted or blotched with darker. FI. bright y.

** Leaves divided. FI. y. Nectary with a scale. Ach. com- pressed lenticular marginate rugose tubercular or muricate. Boot fibrous.

4. R. TMLOBUS Desf.

Smooth or nearly so ; st. erect subrobust and firm much branched ; root-l. roundish undivided crenate, the rest 3-partite with the segments wedgeshaped cut and toothed ; pedic. oppo- site the l. furrowed ; sep. reflexed : pet. subabortive 3-4, rarely

5. oblong scarcely or not longer than the sep. ; disk of ach. bluntly warted or tuberculated all over. Desf. 1. 437. t. 113 ; DC. 1. 42 ; Presl 19; WB. ! i. 10 (excl. var. /3. rhceadifolius). Herb, ann. Mad. reg. 1, 2 ; r. May, June. St. 12-15 in. high branched from the base, stout and upright, more or less erect ; herbage pale gr. FI. small inconspicuous pale y. Ach. with a broad short curved beak, the smooth broadish rim or margin remaining gr. longer than the bluntly granulated disk, which soon turns tawny brown. The whole pi. is of very short duration. Var. :

a. glabra ; nearly or quite smooth. Yar. a. Fontanesii WB. ! h c. Ascent out of the Cayadas Ravine beyond Camaclia, wet places by the roadside. Maxico, wet ditches and places on the beach.

1 3 subjyilosa ; st. 1. and sep. more or less hairy ; st. somewhat spreading or diffuse. Borders of cornfields by the road between S. Vicente and the Encomiado, in drier situations than a.

Bourgeau’s specimens from Grand Canary in the BH.

1. RANUNCULACE2E.

6

ticketed R. trilobus Desf., cannot be distinguished from his Teneriffe specimens of the true R. parvifiorus L. The HII. contains however true Canarian specimens from Webb of R. tri- lobus a, with Azorian also of both a. and (3.

No such pi. has occurred in Madeira as R. rhceadifolius DC. Deless. Ic. 1. t. 40, which also, by specimens in HH., appears distinct enough, with its much more hairy and divided Escholt- zia-like 1., from the present sp., to which it is referred by Webb and Walpers.

5. R. PARVIFLORUS L.

Hairy -pubescent ; st. prostrate or procumbent weak and slendei' almost filiform branched here and there only ; 1. all trifid, their lobes or segments wedge-shaped, in the upper deeply cut or toothed ; pedic. opposite the 1. remote all along the st. ; sep. refiexcd pubescent; pet. subabortive 3-4 oblong not longer than the sep. ; disk of ach. all over thickly echinulate with hooked or pointed tubercles. Desf. 1. 441 ; Brot. ii. 371 ; EB. t. 120 ; DC. 1. 42; Sm. E. FI. iii. 53; WB. ! i. 11; Bab. 11.

/3. acutilobus DC. WB. 1. c. ; 1. more deeply 3-cleft, the seg- ments deeply cut with large acute teeth. Herb. ann. Mad. reg. 1, 2 ; r. Gutters in Machico, and descent into Rib. Frio in the road. May-Jidy. St. 6-10 in. long, weak and trailing or

diffusely spreading horizontally, their ends ascending. FI. in- conspicuous small pale y. Ach. few (8-10) in a head, rather large proportionately to the pi. ; their margin very narrow ; tubercles of the disk tipped each with a short hooked weak or bristly point. Beak short curved hooked at the tip. Recept. smooth.

6. R. muricatus L.

Smooth or with only a few scattered hairs, shining ; st. robust and firm, at first erect, soon diffuse or spreading stiffly, much branched from the base ; lower l. round or renifonn S-lobed coarsely inciso-crenate, upper trifid wedge-shaped at the base ; pedic. opposite the 1. slightly hirtose; sep. slightly hirtose spreading ; pet. ovate-oblong small not longer than the sep. ; disk of ach. all over prickly with long-beaked hooked or pointed tubercles, the margin unarmed even. Desf. 1. 440; Brot. ii. 373; DC. 1.42; Presl 19; WB. ! i. 9, 10 ; Koch 20. —Herb. ann. Mad. r eg. 1,2; c. PS. reg. 1 ; r. Gutters and wet places by roadsides about Funchal, and in PS. about the large tank halfway across the island. March, Apr. principally, but irregularly throughout the year. Herbage pale gr. very shining. St. 4-8 or 10 in. high, short stiff thick and hollow. FI. small bright v. Ach. broadly