THE

PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

LINNEAN SOCIETY

OP

NEW SOUTH WALES.

' ' ' .--^ h^ <-4

FOR THE YEAR

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Vol. XXXII.

>A/ITH FIFTY-TWO PLATES

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LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS AND TITLES OF PAPERS.

Andrews, E. C, B.A. page

The Geographical Significance of Floods, with especial

Reference to Glacial Action. (Plates xliv.-xlv.) 795

Benson, W. Noel

The Geology of Newbridge, near Bathurst, N. S.W.

(Plates xxii.-xxiii.)... ... ... ... .. 523

Chapman, Frederick, A.L.S., F.R.M.S., National Museum, Melbourne

On the Tertiary Limestones and Foraminiferal Tuffs

of Malekula, New Hebrides. (Plates xxxvii.-xli.) 745

GoDDARD, E. J., B.A, B.Sc, Junior Demonstrator in Bi- ology, Sydney University, and H. T.Jensen, B.Sc, Linnean Macleay Fellow of the Society in Geology

Contribution to a Knowledge of Australian Foramini-

fera. Part ii. (Plate vi.) 291

Grant, F. E., F.L.S., and Allan R. McCulloch, Austra- lian Museum

Decapod Crustacea from Norfolk Island. (Plate i.)... 151

Grouvelle, a.

Description d'une nouvelle Esp^ce d'Oxyhamiis (Cole-

OPTERA : Colydiidoi) ... ... ... ••• ^35

27790

iv. LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS AND TITLES OF PAPERS.

PAGE

Hedley, Charles, F.L.S.—

The Mollusca of Mast Head Reef, Capricorn Group,

Queensland. (Plates xvi.-xxi.) ... ... ... 476

Jensen, H. I., B.Sc, Linnean Macleay Fellow of the Society in Geology

The Geology of the War rumbungle Mountains. ( Plates

xxiv.-xxxii.) ^ ... ... ... ... 657

Note on a Glaucophane Schist from the Conandale

Range, Queensland ... ... ... .. 701

Chemical Note on a recent Lava from Savaii ... 706

The Geology of the Nandewar Mountains. (Plates

xlvi.-lii.) 842

Jensen, H. I., B.Sc, Linnean Macleay Fellow of the Society in Geology, and E. J. Goddard, B.A., B.Sc, Junior Demonstrator in Geology, Sydney University

Contribution to a Knowledge of Australian Foramini-

fera. Part ii. (Plate vi.) 291

Kirkaldy, G. W., F.E.S.—

Memoir on a few Heteropteroua Hemiptera from

Eastern Australia. (Plate xliii.) 768

Lea, Arthur M., F.E.S.—

Revision of the Australian Curculionidce belonging to the Subfamily Cryptorhi/iichides [Coleoptera|. Part viii. ... ... ... ... ... ,,, 40O

McCulloch, Allan R., Australian Museum, and F. E. Grant, F.L.S.—

Decapod Crustacea from Norfolk Island. (Plate i.)... 151

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS AND TITLES OF PAPERS. V.

PAGE

Meyrick, Edward, B.A., F.R.S., Corresponding Member

Descriptions of Australian Micro-Lepidoptera. Part

xix. FliUellidce ... ... ... ... ... 47

Petrie, James M., D.Sc, F.I.C, Linnean Macleay Fellow of the Society in Bio-Chemistry

Solandrine, a new Midriatic Alkaloid... ... ... 789

Playfair, G. I.

Some new or less known Desmids found in New South

Wales. (Plates ii.-v.) 160

Sloane, Thomas G.

Studies in Australian Entomology. No. xv. New Genera and Species of Carabidce, with some Notes on Synonymy (Clivi7iini, Scaritini, Cunei- 2)ectini, Trigoyiotomini and Lehiini) ... ... 346

Steel, Thomas, F.C.S., F.L.S.—

Presidential Address delivered at the Thirty-Second

Annual General Meeting, March 27th, 1907 ... 1

Taylor, T. Griffith, B.Sc, B.E., Assistant Demonstrator in Geology, and Lecturer in Commercial Geo- graphy in the University of Sydney

The Lake George Senkungsfeld, a Study of the Evolu- tion of Lakes George and Bathurst, N. S.W. (Plates vii.-x.) 325

TiLLYARi), R. J., M.A., F.E.S.—

On Dimorphism in the Females of Australian Agri-

o?iiVZfe [Neuroptera : Odonata\ ... ... ... 382

New Australian Species of the Family CalojHerygidcE

[Neuroptera : Odonata\ ... ... ... ... 394

vi. LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS AND TITLES OF PAPERS.

PAGE

On the Genus Petalura, with Description of a new

Species. (Plate xxxiii.) .. ... ... ... 708

The Dragonflies of South- Western Australia. (Plates

xxxiv.-xxxvi.) ... ... ... ... ... 719

On a Collection of Dragonflies from Central Australia,

with Descriptions of new Species. (Plate xlii.)... 761

Turner, A. Jefferis, M.D., F.E.S.

Revision of Australian Lepidoptera, iv. ... ... 631

Turner, Rowland E., F.E.S.—

A Revision of the Thynnidce of Australia [Hymen-

optera]. Part i. ... ... ... ... ... 206

Revision of the Australian Species of the Genus Antho- bosca [Hymenoptera : Family ScoIiidcB] with Descriptions of New Species ... ... ... 514

Woolnough, W. G., D.Sc, F.G.S., Assistant Lecturer in Geology and Mineralogy, University of Sydney

A Contribution to the Geology of Viti Levu, Fiji.

(Plates xi.-xv.) 431

CONTEiNTS OF PROCEEDINGS, 190T,

PART I. (No. 125).

(lasiied June 20th, 1007 )

PAGE

Presidential Address delivered at the Thirty-second Annual General

Meeting, March 27th, 1907, by Thomas Steel, F.C.S., F.L.S. ... 1

Descriptions of Australasian Micro-Lepidoptera, Part xix. Flutellidce.

By E. Meyrick, B.A., F.R.S., Corresponding Member 47

Decapod Crustacea from Norfolk Island. By the late F. E. Grant F.L.S., and Allan R. McCulloch, Australian Museum. {Plate i.) 151

Some new or less known Desmids found in New South Wales. By

G. 1. Playfair. (Comniunicatedhy ihc Secretary). (Plates ii. -v.) 160

Balance Sheet, &c 42

Elections and Announcements ... 46,157

Notes and Exhibits ... .. ... ... ... .. ... ... 158

List of Fungi exhibited by Mr. Cheel at the April Meeting (see p. 159). 202

Note. In Messrs. Maiden and Betche's paper in the last Part of the Proceedings (1906, p. 738) the name of the common Rough-leaved Fig should be Ficus stephanocarpa and not Ficus stenocarpa, as there printed.

PART II. (No. 126).

(Issued Augusl 20th, 1907.)

A Revision of the Thyniiida of Australia [Hyjienoptera]. Part i. By

Rowland E. Turner, F.E.S 206

Contributions to a Knowledge of Australian Foraminifera. Pattii. By E. J. GoDDARD, B.A., B.Sc, Junior Demonstrator in Biology, Sydney University; and H. I. Jensen, B.Sc, Linnean Macleay Fellow of the Society in Geology. (Plate vi.) 291

Notice of the Special General Meeting held on 2;hd May, ]907, to

Commemorate the Bicentenary of Carl von Linne (1707-1907) . 319

Vlll. CONTENTS.

PART II. (continued.)

PAGE

The Lake George Senkungsfeld, a Study of the Evolution of Lakes George and Bathurst, N.S.W, By T. Griffith Taylor, B.Sc, B.E., Assistant Demonstrator in Geology and Lecturer in Com- mercial Geography at the University of Sydney. (Plates vii.-x.) 325

Studies in Australian Entomology. No. xv. New Genera and Species of Carahidce, with some Notes on Synonymy {Clivinini, Scaritini, Cuneipectini, Trigonotomini and Lthiini), By Thomas G. Sloane 346

On Dimorphism in the Females of Australian Agrionidoi [Neurop-

TKYik-. Odonata\ By R. J. Tillyard, M.A., F.E.S 382

New Australian Species of the Family Calopterygidce [Neuroptera :

Odonata]. By R. J. Tillyard, M. A., F.E.S 394

Revision of the Australian Gurculionidfe belonging to the Subfamily

CryptorJnjnchides [Coleoptera]. Part viii. By APvTHUR M. Lea 400

Elections and Announcements 319, 323, 391

Notes and Exhibits 393

PART III. (No. 127).

(Issued October Soth, 1907.)

A Contribution to the Geology of Viti Levu, Fiji. By W. G. WooLNOUGH, D.Sc, F.G.S., Assistant Lecturer in Geology and Mineralogy, University of Sydney. (Plates xi.-xv.) .. ... 431

The Mollusca of Mast Head Reef, Capricorn Group, Queensland.

Partii. By C. Hedley, F.L.S. (Plates xvi.-xxi.) 476

Revision of the Australian Species of the Genus Anthohosca [Hymenop- TERA : Family Scoliidce] with Descriptions of New Species. By Rowland E. Turner, F.E.S 514

The Geology of Newbridge, near Bathurst, N.S.W. By W. N. Benson,

Student at the University of Sydney. (Plates xxii.-xxiii.) ... 523

The Geology of the Warrumbungle Mountains. By H. I. Jensen, B.Sc, Linnean Macleay Fellow of the Society in Geology. (Plates xxiv.-xxxii.) 557

Elections and Announcements - ... 475, 554

Notes and Exhibits 475,554

CONTENTS. IX.

PART IV. (No. 128).

{Issued March 11th, 190S).

PAOK

Revision of Australian Lepidoptera, iv. By A. J. Turner, M.D.,

F.E.S 631

Note on a Glaucophane Schist from the Conandale Range, Queens- land. By H. I. Jensen, B.Sc, Linnean Macleay Fellow of the Society in Geology 701

Chemical Note on a recent Lava from Savaii. By H. I. Jensen, B.Sc,

Linnean Macleay Fellow of the Society in Geology.. 706

On the Genus Petalura [Neuroptera : Odonata], with Description of a

new Species. By R. J. Tillyard, M. A., F.E.S. (Plate xxxiii.) 708

The Dragonflies of South- Western Australia. By R. J. Tillyard,

M. A., F.E.S. (Plates xxxiv.-xxxvi.) 719

On the Tertiary Limestones and Foraminiferal Tuffs of Malekula, New Hebrides. By Frederick Chapman, A.L.S., F.R.M.S., National Museum, Melbourne, (Communicated hy D. Mmoson). (Plates xxxvii.-xli.) 745

On a Collection of Dragonflies from Central Australia, with Des- criptions of new Species. By R. J. Tillyard, M.A., F.E.S. (Plate xlii.) 761

Memoir on a few Heteropterous Hemiptera from Eastern Australia.

By. G. W. KiRKALDY, F.E.S. (Plate xliii.) 768

Solandrine, a new Midriatic Alkaloid. By James M. Petrie, D.Sc,

F.I.C., Linnean Macleay Fellow of the Society in Bio-Chemistry 789

The Geographical Significance of Floods, with especial Reference to

Glacial Action. By E. C. Andrews, B. A. (Plates xliv.-xlv.) ... 795

Description d'une nouvelle Espece d'Oxylmnus (Coleoptera : Coly-

diidce\ Par A. Grouvelle. (Communicated hy A. M. Lea) ... 835

The Geology of the Nandewar Mountains. By H. I. Jensen, B.Sc, Linnean Macleay Fellow of the Society in Geology. (Plates xlvi.- lii.) 842

Elections and Announcements 627, 743, 837

Notes and Exhibits 627,744,837

Donations and Exchanges ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 915

Title Page i.

List of Contributors and Titles of Papers iii.

Contents ... ... vii.

List of Plates x.

List of New Tribal, Subfamily, Generic, and Subgeneric Names ... xii,

Corrigenda ... ... .., ... ... ... ... ... ... xii.

Index.

LIST OF PLATES.

PEOCEEDINGS, 1907.

Plate I. Decapod Crustacea from Norfolk Island ( ^ripAia norfolcensis, n.sp.,

and Pachycheles lifuensis Borr.). Plates II. -V. New South Wales Desmids. Plate VI. Australian Foraminifera. Plate VII.— Map of the Lake George Senkungsfeld and Fault Scarp

(Cullarin Range). Plate VIII.— Stereogram of Lake George showing Fault Scarp and Drainage

Modifications. Plate IX. View of the dry bed of Lake George, in February, 1907. Plate X. View of Lake George, in 1881, when nearly full of water. Plate XI. Geological Sketch Map of Viti Levu, Fiji. Plate XII. Map of Viti Levu, Fiji. Plate XIII. Fig.l. Mount Korobasabasaga from the east.

Fig. 2. Mount Voma at the head of the Waidina River. Plate XIV. Fig.l. Mount Nabui on the Wainikoroiluva River.

Fig. 2. View of the Upper Waidina Valley. Plate XV. Figs. 1-2. Sections of upraised (Tertiary) coral reef exposed in

road-cutting at Walu Bay, Suva. Plates XVI. -XXI. Mast Head Reef Mollusca. Plate XXII. Geological Map of Newbridge. Plate XXIII. Newbridge Rocks and Rock-Sections. Plate XXIV, Sketch Map of the Warrumbungle Mountains, showing

Geological Formations. Plate XXV. Stereogram of the Warrumbungles. Plate XXVI.— Fig. 1. BuUeamble Mountains from Siding Spring Mountain.

Fig. 2. The Spire (Tonduron) from Needle Mountain. Plate XXVII. Fig.l. The Needle and Mountains beyond it, from Needle Mountain. Fig.2. View of Siding Spring Mountain, looking north. Plate XXVIII. —Fig.l. Bugaldi Valley and Wheoh Mountain, from Siding Spring Mountain. Fig.2. The Bluff and Mt. Exmouth from Siding Spring Mountain. Plate XXIX. Fig.l. Siding Spring Mountain, High Peak, etc., from Needle Mountain. Fig.2. A Sandstone " Mesa " near Baradine Creek. Plate XXX. Microphotographs of Trachytes (Warrumbungle Mountains). Plate XXXI. Microphotographs of Phonolite, Leucitophyre and Basalt Warrumbungle Mountains).

LIST OF PLATES. xi.

Plate XXXII.— Figs. 1-3. Microphotographs of Basalt (Warrumbungle Mts.). Figs. N.1-N.3. Microphotographs of Pitchstone, etc. (Nande- war Mountains). Plate XXXIII. Petalura ingentissima, n.sp., and P. gigantea Leach [Neurop-

TERA : Odonata]. Plate XXXIV. Map of South-West Australia showing Isohyetals. Plate XXXV. South- West Australian Dragonflies {Synthemis Martini, n.sp.,

S. cyanitincta, n.sp., Austrogomphus occidentalism n.sp., Austro-

ceschna anacantha, n.sp., Argiolestes minimus, n.sp., Pseudagrion

carxdeum, n.sp.). Plate XXXVI. Synthemis cyanitincta, S. Martini, Austrogomphusoccidentalis,

Austrooischna anacantha. Plate XXXVII. —Miocene Foraminiferal Limestones: Malekula, New Hebrides. Plate XXXVIII. Foraminifera from the Older Limestones : Malekula, N.H. Plate XXXIX. Foraminifera [Trillina and Lepidocyclina) from the Older

Limestones : Malekula, N.H. Plate XL. Encrusting Organisms in the Post-Miocene Limestones : Male- kula, N.H. Plate XLi.— Foraminifera, etc., in Post-Miocene Limestones: Malekula, N.H. Plate XLii. Central Australian Dragonflies [Isosticta simplex Martin,

Aust7'osticta Fieldi, n.sp., Lestes analis Ramb., Lestes aridus, n.B^. Plate XLiii. Eastern Australian HeteropterousHemiptera [Thaumastocoris

[Thanmastothe.riiun'] australicus, gen.et sp.n., Hypsipyrgias tela-

monides, gen.et sp.nov., Cyateorrhacha cacti/era, gen.et sp.n.,

Synthlipsis chanibersi, gen.et sp.n.). Plate XLiv. Junction of the Arthur and Cleddau Rivers, Milford Sound,

N.Z., showing Cafion-convergence. Plate XLV. Preservation Inlet, N.Z., showing Cafion-divergence. Plate XLVi. Geological Sketch Map of the Nandewar Mountains, and the

country between the Nandewars and New England, N.S.W. Plate XLViL Geological Sketch Map of the Nandewar Mountains only. Plate XLViii. Two views of Ningadhun and Yullundunida from the

Bullawa Creek Valley. Plate XLix. Fig. 1. View of the Lindesay Group from Bullawa Creek.

Fig. 2. Scabby Rock, Pilliga Scrub. Plate L. Microphotographs of Perlitic Pitchstone, Dolerite, Solvsbergite,

Pulaskite Porphyry, Bostonite, and Akerite (Nandewar Mountains). Plate Li. Microphotos of Labradorite Porphyry, Arfvedsonite-^girine

Trachyte, Monzonose, Andesite, Phenocryst of Labradorite in

alkaline basalt, and Akerite (Nandewar Mountains). Plate Lii. Handspecimens of Monchiquitic Lamprophyre and Labradorite

Porphyry (Nandewar Mountains),

Xll. LIST OF NEW TRIBAL, SUBFAMILY, GENERIC, ETC., NAMES.

LIST OF NEW TRIBAL*, SUBFAMILYf, GENERIC AND SUBGENERIC§ NAMES

Proposed in this Volume (1907).

Anaphantis (Lepidoptera) Aristaea (Lepidoptera) Austrosticta (Neuroptera) Autanepsia (Lepidoptera) Copidoris (Lepidoptera) Cos7nodiscus (Coleoptera) *Cuneipectini ... Cuneipectus (Coleoptera) Cyclotorna (Lepidoptera) Cyphosticha (Lepidoptera) Cysteorrhaca (Hemiptera) Dasybela (Lepidoptera) Derhyiella (Coleoptera) Diathryptica (Lepidoptera) Epicroesa (Lepidoptera) Epimixia ( Hemiptera) . . . Eurocrypha (Hemiptera) Homadaida (Lepidoptera) Hypsipyrgias (Hemiptera) %Lepteiront (Hymenoptera) X See Slip opposite p.

CORRIGENDA.

Page 104, line 23— for 170. Af. centropus, n.sp. read 170. M. centropis, n.sp. Page 18.3, line 14 for St. orh. ^ verruco sum read St. orh. /3 verrucosum. Page 301, line 25 -/or 14. T. quadrilateralis read 14. T. quadrilatera. Page 402, line 24— /o?- Anipigraphocis read Anepiqraphocis. Page 742, line 4 for Argiolestes minima read Argiolestes minimus.

Pale 77o' line 7 1 •^'^^ Geocorid^ read Myodichid^.

Page 769, line 3 I for Thaumastotherium australicum read Thaumaatocoris

Page 788, line 28 [ aiistralicus.

Page 777, line 2— for THAUMASTOTHERIINiE, sub-fam, nov. read THAU-

MASTGCGRINiE, sub-fam. nov. Page 777, line l^^or Thaumastotherium, gen. nov. read T h a u-

MASTOcoRis, gen. nov. Page 778, line 10— /or T[haumastotherium] australicum, sp.nov. read

T[haumastocoris] australicus, sp.nov. Page xiii., line 20 (left column of the Index)— /or Kennedya sp. ... 52 read

Kennedy a rubicunda .., 52.

... 90

Loxogenius (Coleoptera)

.. 369

... 52

Macarostola (Lepidoptera)

.. 62

... 764

Metaphrastis (Lepidoptera)

.. 134

... 673

Microherosiris (Coleoptera)

.. 418

... 140

Opsidines (Lepidoptera)

.. 68

... 371

Paraphyllis (Lepidoptera)

.. 140

... 358

Paratituacia (Coleoptera)

.. 423

... 358

Phalangitis (Lepidoptera)

.. 136

... 72

Piestoceros (Lepidoptera)

.. 94

... 61

Rhytidogaster ( Hymenoptera ^

229

... 785

Sympediosoma (Coleoptera)

.. 419

.. 667

Synthlipsis (Hemiptera)

.. 786

... 430

t ThaumastocorincR (Hemiptera):J:

... 139

Thaumastocoris (Hemiptera)

+

... 94

t Thanmastotheriince (Hemip-

... 779

tera) i|

.. 777

... 784

Thaumastotherium('H.emi]^ieYa)\\ 777

... 73

VuUurnia (Hemiptera)

.. 776

... 779

Xyrosaris (Lepidoptera)

.. 71

... 249

.763.

II To be treated as synonyms.

/^

M

:F»ROOEE3DIlsrGI-S

OF THE

LINNEAN SOCIETY

OP

:^TE"X^ SOXTTH X'vT-.i^.IjES.

WEDNESDAY, MARCH 27th, 1907.

The Thirty-second Annual General Meeting, and the Ordinary Monthly Meeting, were held in the Linnean Hall, Ithaca Road, Elizabeth Bay, on Wednesday evening, March 27th, 1907.

ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. Mr. T. Steel, F.C.S., F.L.S., President, in the Chair. The Minutes of the preceding Annual General Meetim (March 28th, 1906) were read and confirmed. The President delivered the Annual Address.

PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS.

The remembrance of the Society's well-sustained activities during the past year, and a hopeful outlook for the future may very well encourage us to celebrate the thirty-second anniversary in no despondent frame of mind, notwithstanding the fact that very important and unlooked for changes, affecting the personnel of the Society in almost every grade, have transpired since the last annual ^atllerinc^ The removal of Dr. J. P. Hill to London, to take up the work of Professor of Zoology at University College,

Z PRESIDENT S ADDRESS.

following close upon that of Mr. Waite to New Zealand, has depiived us of an active worker of the stamp that we much prefer to welcome rather than to lose. Mr. P. R. Pedley, OJie of the oldest Members of the Council, has found it necessary to withdraw; and in starting upon his visit to Europe on a well- earned holiday Mr. Pedley will take with him our best wishes for an enjoyable and invigorating trip, and a safe return in due course.

Since the last Annual Meeting w^e have had to deplore the deaths of Dr. Sylvan us P. Langley, an Honorary Member, Mr. William Mitten, a Corresponding Member, the Hon. William R. Campbell, M.L.C.,and Mr. Alexander Grant, Ordinary Members, and Mr. Frank E. Grant, F.L.8., and the Hon. Dr. James Norton, Members of the Council.

As philosophers we with fortitude recognise the inevitable vicissitudes accessions and departures which enable the guild or corporation not only to develop, but to remain intact and immortal. Still, as " units of humanity," we cannot but feel a deep sense of personal regret at the loss of our comrades and the severance of old associations.

Dr. Samuel Pierpont Langley, the distinguished Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, and ex officio keeper of the United States National Museum, Washington, died on February 27th, 1906. His conspicuous success as an administrator and his zealous efibrts to develop the usefulness of these great Institutions with their various ramifications, and to uphold their prestige, have amply justified his selection to carry on the work inaugurated by Professor Joseph Henry, and worthily continued by Dr. Spencer Fullerton Baird. Dr. Langley had established his reputation also as an accomplished astronomer and physicist especially interested in the problems of aeronautics. His decease has lemoved an influential and worthy disciple of science and source of inspiration not only to his own countrymen but to the wider brotherhood of science. Professor Langley was elected an Honorary Member of this Society in August, 1891, in succession to his predecessor Professor Spencer Eaird, in token of the

3

Society's appreciation of the inestimable services rendered by the Bureau of International Exchanges of the Smithsonian Institu- tion, which so liberally interprets the term "diffusion of know- ledge" as to recognise therein the necessary but prosaic labour of distributing the publications of Scientific Institutions, which is done entirely free of charge.

Mr. William Mitten, the accomplished English bryologist, and fatlier-in-law of Dr. Alfred Russell Wallace, who passed away in his eighty-seventh year, at Hurstpierpoint, Sussex, on July 20th, 1906, was elected a Corresponding Member of the Society in March, 1882. His professional work, that of a pharmaceutical chemist, gave him little opportunity for travel, even as far as London; but this led him all the more assiduously in his leisure time to cultivate at home an early acquired taste for botany, until, botanicall}'- speaking, he must have come to know by heart the neiglibourhood in which he was born, lived out his simple but fruitful life, and in which he ended his peaceful days. Through the influence of his friend and neighbour, William Borrer, and also of Sir William Hooker, he was led eventually to specialise in the study of mosses, hepatics and lichens; until, in this branch of botan}^ he became one of the leading British authorities. His published papers are very numerous; and one of them, entitled " Musci Austro-Americani," by itself takes up the entire twelfth volume of the botanical portion of the Journal of the Linnean Society of London (1869). His more important papers on Aus- tralian non-vascular cryptogams are "A List of the Musci and Hepaticae collected in Victoria, Australia, by Dr. F. Mueller (in Hooker's Journ. Bot. viii. 1856, pp.257-266); "Descriptions of some new species of Musci from New Zealand . . . together with an enumeration of the Species collected in Tasmania by William Archer, Esq.," &c. (Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. iv. 1860, pp. 64-100); also the " Hepaticae," and in conjunction with the Rev. C. Babbington, the " Lichenes " of Hooker's " Flora Tas- manise" (I860). In addition to these, his contributions to know- ledge include studies on some or other of these groups from New Zealand, Fiji, and Samoa ; as well as from Japan, and Mt.

4 PRESIDENTS ADDRESS.

Kinibalu in Borneo. To Mr. Botting Hemsley's " Report on the Botany of the Challenger Expedition," Mr. Mitten also contributed the portion dt'aling with the hepatics and mosses.

Mr. Mitten has thus furnished us with a brilliant and inspiring example of the useful and necessary amateur at his best, and of the extraordinary amount of good work that can be successfully accomplished during the frequently interrupted leisure of a long lifetime by the patience and concentration of an enthusiast. I may conclude my remarks upon this estimable man by a brief quotation from a biographical sketch, contributed to the "Journal of Botany" (for October, 1906) by Mr. Botting Hemsley, who says of Mr. Mitten "He had correspondents in all parts of the world, from whom he received many things besides mosses, including seeds for his garden, of which he was very fond. I remember how keenly he examined his mosses and liverworts for chance seeds of other plants, and how much pleasure he derived from observing their germination and growth. In this way he raised several things from remote islands visited by the ' Chal- lenger' Expedition."

The Hon. William Robert Campbell, M.L.C., a member of an old Sydney family, who died on July 30, 1906, aged 68, joined the Society in October, 1878. At this time he was the owner of Trigamon Station, near Warialda; and becoming interested in the occurrence of fishes in a dam unconnected with any water- course, and which had been dry a few months previously, he forwarded specimens to Sir William Macleay, who determined them to be referable to a species of Therapon (T. uuicolor Gthr.), and published a short account of them in the Society s Proceedings (Vol. iii. p. 15). Upon rrlinquishing the life of a squatter, and taking up his residence in Sydney, Mr. Campbell developed a lasting interest in matters relating to fish and fisheries. For some years, and until its abolition, he was a member of the old Board of Fisheries ; and a few months before his death he was elected to the existing Board, in succession to the late Hon. John Want, M.L.C. Mr. Campbell was elected to the Legislative Assembly, as Member for West Sydney, in 1868. From Novem-

PRESIDENTS ADDRESS. 5

ber, 1880, until liis resignation in May, 1886, he was the repre- sentative of the electorate of Owydir. In Apiil, 1890, he was appointed to a seat in the Upper House. Asa public man, and as a public-spirited citizen, Mr. Campbell enjoyed the respect and esteem of those who knew him or were associated with him in public life. Sir William Macleaj^ and Mr. Campbell married sisters, two of the daughters of the late >ir Edward Deas Thomson, C. B., K.C.M.G. Mr. Campbell's death has thus deprived the Society of a member more nearly related to Sir William Macleay, than by the tie of personal friendship.

Mr. Alexander Grant was born at Cullen, Banffshire, Scotland, in 1844. He served his apprenticeship as a horticulturist in the celebrated gardens of the Earl of Seatield, Cullen House, being afterwards engaged as gardener in the Koyal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh, during the curatorship of Mr. McNab. His skill as a microscopist at this time led to his employment in the prepara- tion of botanical microscopical material for the University students who attended the gardens for special stud}'. After his arrival in Sydney, in 1878, he was employed for several years as a private gardener, and in 1882 joined the staff of the Sydney Botanic Gardens. Mr. Grant made a special study of fungi and was honorary custodian of the plants of this group in the National Herbarium. He was a Vice-President of the Horticultural Asso- ciation of New South Wales since its foundation. Mr. Grant died on Christmas Day, 1906.

The comparative absence in Australia of a wealthy leisured class gives fewer unpaid workers to science in proportion to pro- fessionals than is the ratio in Europe. Those we have are busy men who, after their day's work is done, devote spare hours or lu)lida3^s to study. One such, a brilliant amateur, was lost to our little band of workers when Frederick Ernest Grant succumbed, after a brief illness, on 31st January last. Mr. Grant was born 23rd March, 1866, at Farlesthorpe, Lincolnshire. In 1883 he accompanied an elder brother, engaged in pastoral pursuits, to New Zealand, and five years later entered the service of the Union Bank. His love for natural science was strong from boyhood. During

his residence in Auckland he collected actively, and possessed a good knowledge of the local fauna. Transference to the Melbourne office opened for him a wider intellectual horizon, which he much appreciated. He attended the science courses at the Technical College and became an active member of the various scientific societies. At the excursions of the Field Naturalists his was a, prominent and popular figure. In the Royal Society he rose to be a member of council. His artistic abilities were at the dis- posal of his friends, and he illustrated various papers by Messrs. Prif chard and Gatliff. Conchology and geology were at first his favourite subjects, but wdien Mr. T. S. Hall pointed out to him that these sciences had their devotees, while the Crustacea lacked a local student, he turned his energies to carcinology and worked steadily at it for the rest of his life. In 1902 he enjoyed extended official leave and re-visited England. The British carcinologists, who recognised the merit of his work and its future promise, gave him cordial greeting. He studied the Australasian Crus- tacea at the British Museum and made voluminous notes thereon. In 1902 he was elected a Fellow of the Linnean Societ}'" of London. Shortly after his return to Australia the Bank transferred him to Sydney. At once he took an active share in our scientific life, was elected member September 30th, 1 903, and on the death of Mr. Trebeck succeeded to the vacant seat on the Council. In 1904 he helped to organise an expedition to examine t' e fanna of the Great Barrier Reef, and with the assistance of Mr. A. R. McCulloch presented to the Society a report on the Crustacea of Mast Head Island. At the time of his death he was busy with a second collection from the Barrier. He accompanied two deep- sea dredging expeditions. His report on the first is incorporated in our Proceedings ; that on the second he did not live to finish. An article on the Crustacea of Norfolk Island had just been com- pleted before his decease and will be presented to the Society at an early date. He leaves a widow and three children.

The Hon. James Norton, LL.D., M.L.C., was born in Sydney, on December 5th, 1824. His father was an English solicitor, who came to Sydne}^ in 1818 to practise his profession. At this

PRESIDENT S ADDRESS. 7

time the legal fraternity in Australia comprised two English solicitors who received a retaining fee from the English Govern- ment as an inducement to take up the practice of law at the Anti- podes. James Norton, jun., was articled to his father in 1843, was admitted as a solicitor in 1848 nnd subsequently taken into partnership. On his father's death in 1862, he succeeded to the business; and, with his partners, he ever afterwards worthily upheld the good name of the important practice so successfully initiated by his father. In 1879 he was called to the Upper House, and in 1884 he became Postmaster-General in the Stuart Government. Outside the field of politics, Dr. Norton patrioti- cally served the State in several capacities as a trustee of the Australian Museum from 1874: as a member of the Board of Trustees of the Free Public Library from 1878, and of which he was chairman at the time of his decease; and as a trustee of Hyde, Phillip and Cook Parks for many years, as well as in other ways. In his early days he seems to have developed a taste for natural history, which provided him with a never-failing hobby for the rest of his life. Some thirty years ago, when the publication of the "Flora Australiensis " made it possible for Australian students to take up the study of indigenous plants with satisfaction and profit, Dr. Norton was one of a small band which included Professor Stephens, Mr. R. D. Fitzgerald, Mr. Edwin Daintree and a few others whose names are not now ascertainable, who met together informally from time to time, to study and compare their collections, and to exchange experiences, with a view to mutual help and encouragement. He was an ardent horticulturist, and took great pride in the beautiful trees and shrubs, especially those of indigenous species, which he cultivated in his fine old garden, and many of which he had himself planted. The spring flowering of his magniticent collection of Cape bulbs furnished an annual occasion for assembling and extending a hearty welcome to his many friends. The natural history of his country home at Springwood was a perennial source of delight and refreshment. He spared and safeguarded the welfare of all the most attractive native plants on his estate,

8 PltKSIDENT S ADDRESS.

and completed the task of cornpiliii<( a census of its flora. His observations on the birds were partially embodied in a paper entitled "Australian Birds: Useful and Noxious," read at the " Conference of Fruit-growers and Vine-growers " held in Sydney in June, 1890, and published in the Report thereof (p. 245). This interesting article concludes with some emphatic remarks upon the unrestricted and inconsiderate acclimatisation of undesirable alien species of plants and animals a subject upon which, as a community, even to this day, we are so slow to learn wisdom. At the monthly meeting in July, in formally announc- ing his decease, I referred to Dr. Norton's long arid honourable connection with the Society, of which he was the oldest surviving original member; to the Society's indebtedness to him for valuable services rendered in various official capacities; and to his unwavering support to and interest in the Society nnd its welfare. Dr. Norton was an observer rather than a writer; but the needs of a Society like this are so varied that the co-operation of members with similar qualifications, and with such ripe experience and general knowledge, is a most important source of strength.

The three extraordinary vacancies in the Council, due to the removal of Mr. Waite and Dr. Hill from the State, and the decease of Dr. Norton, were filled by the Council's election of Messrs. A. G. Hamilton, R. H. Cambage and Professor J. T. Wilson, in the manner prescribed by the Act of Incorporation, as announced in due course to the Members. In accordance with the provisions of Rule xvi., these gentlemen are included among the six retiring Members of Council for the year. More recently the retirement of Mr. Pedley, and the decease of Mr, Grant ha^ e caused two additional vacancies which remain to be filled on the present occasion, as Members have already been notified by circular.

Six (nominally seven) Ordinary Members, and one Associate Member were elected during the year, so that our numbers remain practically stationary. The thirty-seven papers read before the Society have been published, Part 4 of the Proceedings for 1903, containing the last instalment of them, being now ready

PRESIDENTS ADDRESS. 9

for distribution. They presented a wide range of subjects for consideration, and in some cases called for ampler opportunities for discussion than the time available at the Meetings allowed, or until those interested had had the opportunity of seeing the papers in print. As soon as provision can be made for it, a special opportunity for discussing the topics treated of in the papers by Messrs. AnJrews, Halligan, Taylor, and Dr. Woolnough will be afforded; and an announcement upon the subject may be looked for at the next Meeting.

The additions to the library for the year amounted to a total of 1,471 (inclu'ling 127 Vols), received l)y gift or exchange from 203 Societies, &c., and 16 individuals.

Notwithstanding the fact that the time for repainting and renovating the exterior of the Society's premises arrived during the year and was duly provided for, I am glad to be able to say that the Hon. Tieasurer will be able to announce presently that we began the current year with a credit balance from last Session.

During the year that has passed, the Macleay Bacteriologist has been engaged upon researches connected with that important bacterium, the nodule-former of the Leynmhiosce. Although the presence of slime in the cells of the nodules and the occurrence of the same in artificial culture under certain conditions, have been known for some time, the real significance of the slime has not hitherto been demonstrated. His first research showed that the slime formed by the microbe contained as its essential constituent, a gum which appeared to approximate in some respect to the carbohydrate of certain nucleoproteids, and on this account the slime in the nodule probably serves to build up the nucleoproteids of the leguminous plant. Using the formation of slime as an index of the activit}-- of the bacterium, it was shown that the bacteria from the nodules of various leguminous plants differed from one another physiologically. But from the fact that three European races of the micro organism, which had been induced to reassurae their slime-forming property in the laboratory, were physiologically identical, it is evident that the physiological function is mutable, and that the bacterium may adapt itself 2

10 president's address.

sooner or later to the conditions that occur within the root-hair and the nodule. There are great differences in the facility with which various races can produce slime under laboratory conditions. As some races do not form it at all, there is reason to believe thut the failure of trade cultures of " Nitragin " has in the past been in part at least due to the fact that the import- ance of the slime-forming function has not been recognised. As they come from the nodules of various plants of the same species, the bacteria may be similar, just as they may be similar when taken from nodules of the same plant. But that such is not always the case, was shown by three distinct races having been obtained from a single nodule. The hypothesis has been advanced that the plant utilises the intracellular albuminoids of the bacterium for its nutrition. Dr. Greig-Smith has shown that this is not probable, for although the great majority of the bacteria and bacteroids are dead during the active growth of the plant, they still stain deeply, and therefore cannot be in process of solution. As the slime is nitrogenous, there can be no doubt that the hypothesis advanced by Maze is correct, and that the slime is the means by which the nitrogen is conveyed from the bacterium to the plant. The inner structure of the betcterium has given rise to much speculation, and latterly its sporangium natuie has been advanced. Maze was the first to illustrate it as consisting of coccobacteria within a branching capsule. The Macleay Bacteriologist has shown that it consists of cocci within a branching capsule, and is therefore allied to Leuconostoc and Streptococcus. It has been shown that the most suitable medium for growing the slime is one which approximates in its nitrogen and^salt content to soil-water, so that, while the bacterium is vegetating in the soil, the alkalinity and nutrients will sustain the slime-forming function. The carbohydrates of the root-hair are the chemotactic substances which induce the bacterium to enter the plant. A second research showed that the bacterium was capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen upon synthetic media under certain conditions. These also induced the formation of slime. Races of the microbe which, while multiplying freely,

PRESIDENTS ADDRESS. 11

<;ou\d not form slime from particular nutrients, were incapable of fixing nitrogen, but when the}' did form slime from other nutrients a fixation also occurred. The presence of another bacterium, itself incapable of forming slime or of fixing nitrogen, increased the slime formation and the fixation of nitrogen. Finally, the fixation of nitrogen was proportional to the forma- tion of slime. A number of lower forms of plant life are known to be capable of enriching the soil by fixing atmospheric nitrogen, and among them, AzofA)bacter chroococcuni is possibly the most vigorous. The Macleay Bacteriologist has confirmed the researches of Beijeriiick upon this microorganism, and has also drawn attention to the fact that the nodule-former of Leguminosfe is quite as capable as Azotobactei- of tixing nitrogen while it is vegetating in the soil.

Three pupils availed themselves of the facilities afforded by the Society's laboratory, and received instruction in certain branches of bacteriology. Dr. Greig-Smith is at present in Europe, on leave, familiarising himself with the recent advances in bacterio- logical science.

During the past twelve months Mr. H. I. Jensen, Macleay Fellow in Geology, has been continuing his work on the alkaline rocks of Eastern Australia. Early last year he completed the petrological investigation of the specimens collected in the War- rumbungle Mountains during the preceding year. He also visited Queensland to make some final observations in the field prior to the publication of his paper on the Geology of the Volcanic Area of the Eist Moreton and Wide Ba}'^ Districts, Queensland. On this expedition he discovered another area of glaucophane schists to the north of the Conandale Range and west of the Blackall Range in the Mary River valley. In May last year he was granted leave of absence to visit Samoa to study the geological featur-'S of the eruption in progress on the island of Savaii. After writing up his paper on Samoa and investigating the rocks collected in the islands, he resumed his work on the Australian alkaline rocks. Mr. Jensen commenced field woik in the Nande- war Mountains, starting out from Narrabri; having examined the geology of this district and made a large collection of speci-

12 president's address.

mens, he drove across to Coonabarabran and finished his field work and collecting in the Warrumbungles, commenced in the previous year. From the Warrumbungle Mountains he proceeded to Dubbo to examine the alkaline rocks lately discovered there by Mr. Myrton, Geological Surveyor of New South Wales. He returned in the end of November after an absence of nearly three months. Since his return Mr. Jensen has been occupied with the petrological examination of the rocks collected, and is at present making chemical analyses of some of the most interesting types. Amongst the rocks collected were alkaline sj^enites, alka- line (arfvedsonite) trachytes, tegirine-nepheline phonolites and other alkaline rocks from the Nandewais; and nosean, pseudo- leucite, nepheline phonolites, alkaline trachytes and pantellarites, socialite and melilite basalts, &c., from the Warrumbungles. There is also a remarkable porphyritic sill rock from the Nande- wars which may perhaj^s form a new rock-iype. Mr. Jensen expects to have a paper ready by June or July, embracing all his work in the field and laboratory on the Geology of the Nan- dew^ars and Warrumbungle Mountains. I may add that the Council has reappointed Mr. Jensen to a Fellowship.

In response to the Council's offer of two vacant Linnean Macleaj'^ Fellowships tw^o applications were received, one of which met with the approval of the Council. I have now much pleasure in availing myself of the first opportunity of formally announcing to the Society the name of the second Linnean Maclea}^ Fellow, Mr. James M. Petrie, D.Sc. The particular branch of work which Dr. Petrie will follow is Biochemistry. Dr. Petrie's training has been such as to especially fit him for this line of research. Commencing at the Heriot-Watt Science College, Edinburgh, Dr. Petrie continued his studies at the University of Sydney where he completed a distinguished science course at the end of 1905, Among distinctions gained were first class honours and medal in chemistry at the B.Sc. examination of 1904; Caird Research Scholar in Chemistry (1904); and first class honours and medal in Organic Chemistry at the D.Sc. examination of 1905. Dr. Petrie is highly recommended by his instructors, and has had

PRESIDENTS ADDRESS. 13

valuable experience both as a teacher and as an investigator. His published papers comprise a thesis for the D.8c. degree, "The Mineral Oil from the Torbanite of New South Wales," published separately (Sydney, 1906) and also in a somewhat abridged form in the Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry, (Vol. xxiv., 1905), and "The Stinging Property of the Giant Nettle-Tree" {Laportea gigas Wedd.) in the Society's Proceedings for 1906. Dr. Petrie is now engaged upon important investiga- tions upon the composition of Piturie, and upon the occurrence of strychnine in the native Strychnos tree of New South Wales;